化学学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (07): 991-998.DOI: 10.6023/A13030343 上一篇    下一篇

综述

式根岛海绵活性物质及功能宏基因组学的应用

贺蕊, 王伯初, 祝连彩, 王亚洲, 冯莹柱   

  1. 重庆大学生物工程学院生物流变科学与技术教育部重点实验室 沙坪坝 400030
  • 收稿日期:2013-03-28 出版日期:2013-07-14 发布日期:2013-04-23
  • 通讯作者: 王伯初, E-mail: wangbc2000@126.com E-mail:wangbc2000@126.com
  • 作者简介:贺蕊, 1983 年出生, 在读博士研究生. 2007 年在西南大学获得制药工程工学学士. 2007 年至今就读于重庆大学生物制药工程专业(硕博连读), 导师王伯初教授. 2010 年10 月~2012年9 月的2 年期间, 在日本东京大学药学院阿部郁朗教授天然物化学实验室进行联合培养, 主要研究工作就是利用功能宏基因组学方法探索式根岛海绵的活性物质及独特的功能基因,从而揭示其生物合成途径.
  • 基金资助:

    项目受中央高校基本科研业务费(No. CQDXWL-2012-130)资助.

Active Constituent and the Application of Functional Metagenomics of Marine Sponge Discodermia Calyx

He Rui, Wang Bochu, Zhu Liancai, Wang Yazhou, Feng Yingzhu   

  1. Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology of the Ministry of Education at Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Shapingba 400030
  • Received:2013-03-28 Online:2013-07-14 Published:2013-04-23
  • Contact: 10.6023/A13030343 E-mail:wangbc2000@126.com
  • Supported by:

    Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. CQDXWL-2012-130).

式根岛海绵及其高度复杂的共生体系是生物活性物质的丰富重要来源, 产生以calyculins为主要成分的毒性物质. 活性物质含量低, 使得直接从海绵分离大量活性物质不可取. 海绵共生菌是活性物质的主要生产者, 但是大部分的共生菌是不可培养的, 使得单纯的分离培养不能发挥很好的作用. 功能宏基因组学避开了培养的瓶颈, 可以获取独特的活性物质及其功能基因. 对式根岛海绵2013年2月以前分离出的活性物质作一综述, 并对非培养依赖型的功能宏基因组学, 在蕴含大量不可培养微生物的式根岛海绵中的应用进行综述. 探讨功能宏基因组在研究开发式根岛海绵及其他海绵的活性物质及有趣功能基因中的应用潜能, 为研究国内海绵的丰富活性物质和有趣的基因提供一种思路和方法.

关键词: 式根岛海绵, 活性成分, 功能宏基因组, 非培养依赖型

Marine sponge Discodermia calyx consisting of highly complex consortia is a rich and important source of biologically active compounds containing calyculins as the major cytotoxic compounds. However, the low content of active constituents makes it unsuitable to separate enough amounts of active compounds directly from marine sponge. Although the symbiotic microbes are the main producers of active compounds, the vast majority of them cannot be cultured under laboratory conditions. This limits the use of isolation and pure culture of symbiotic microbes to get active compounds from marine sponge. Functional metagenomics, exploring uncultured environmental microorganisms by extracting the genomic DNA directly from marine sponge without any culture or isolation steps, has been proven to be a practical approach to search for unique bioactive small molecules and the corresponding functional genes from marine sponge Discodermia calyx. The biological active constituent of Discodermia calyx separated before February 2013 was summarized. The application of culture-independent functional metagenomics in the Discodermia calyx harboring large populations of uncultured symbiotic microbes was reported. This corroborates the most attractive potential application of functional metagenomics in searching for unique bioactive small molecules and interesting functional genes from Discodermia calyx and other marine sponges. To provide a practical and promising approach to study the Chinese marine sponge-a reservoir pool of biological active compounds and interesting functional genes.

Key words: marine sponge Discodermia calyx, active constituent, functional metagenomics, culture-independent