Acta Chimica Sinica ›› 2013, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (06): 897-905.DOI: 10.6023/A13010080 Previous Articles     Next Articles



黄旭a,b, 韩玉淳b, 王毅琳a   

  1. a 中国科学院化学研究所 北京 100190;
    b 北京宝洁技术有限公司 北京 101312
  • 投稿日期:2013-01-16 发布日期:2013-03-21
  • 通讯作者: 王毅琳,;Tel.: 010-82615802;Fax:010-82615802
  • 基金资助:

    项目受国家自然科学基金(No. 21025313, 21021003)资助.

Thermodynamic Investigation on Micellization of Cationic Gemini Surfactants with Nitrophenoxy Groups in Hydrophobic Chains

Huang Xua,b, Han Yuchunb, Wang Yilina   

  1. a Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190;
    b P&G Beijing Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing 101312
  • Received:2013-01-16 Published:2013-03-21
  • Supported by:

    Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21025313 and 21021003).

Isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) is a powerful technique for acquiring thermodynamic information on the micellization process of surfactants. In typical ITC experiments, consecutive injections of small volume of a surfactant micellar solution into water contained in a sample cell are performed. The sample cell is maintained at a constant temperature and the heat of processes occurring during dilution is monitored for each injection and plotted as a function of surfactant concentration in the cell. The interpretation of experimental data obtained by ITC is necessarily based on models describing micellization process. So far, there are two main models to the thermodynamic analysis of the micellization process: the mass action model, considering micelles and unassociated monomers to be in an association-dissociation equilibrium and the phase separation model, which regards micelles as a separate phase at critical micelle concentration (CMC) and assumes that the micellization process is strongly cooperative. The phase separation model is the simplest model for describing micelle formation assuming that this process is akin to a separate phase-precipitation. Based on these two models, an ITC curve of observed enthalpy change versus surfactant concentration allows the determination of CMC and the enthalpy of micellization (ΔHmic) of a surfactant. Other thermodynamic parameters related to micellization, namely the free energy (ΔGmic), the entropy (ΔSmic) and the heat capacity of micellization (ΔCp,mic) can be calculated from the experimentally determined CMC and ΔHmic. In this paper, ITC and electrical conductivity were employed to investigate the micellization process of cationic gemini surfactants, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-N,N'-bis[10-(4-nitrophenoxy)alkyl]-1,6-hexanediammonium dibromide (Nm-6-mN, with m=8, 10 and 12, which are the numbers of carbon in the hydrocarbon chains), in aqueous solutions. Both phase separation model and mass action model were used to obtain a series of thermodynamic parameters. The results show that the obtained ΔHmic values based on the two models are very close, however, the obtained ΔGmic values based on the two models are not consistent. In addition, the ΔCp,mic of the micellization process is mainly from the dehydration contribution of hydrophobic alkyl chains of the surfactants, which means the nitrophenoxy group located in the hydrophobic chain still contacts with water after the micellization. Furthermore, the micellar aggregation number n can be obtained by employing the mass action model. The micellar aggregation number n decreases with the increase of the hydrophobic chain length. The reason is that the surfactant with longer hydrophobic chains prefers to form premicelles, leading to the decrease of the average aggregation number.

Key words: Gemini surfactant, micellization, isothermal titration microcalorimetry, phase separation model, mass action model