Acta Chim. Sinica ›› 2018, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (7): 537-542.DOI: 10.6023/A18040175 Previous Articles     Next Articles

Article

黑磷的制备及表征研究

张丹丹a, 袁振洲a, 张国庆a, 田楠a, 刘丹敏a, 张永哲b   

  1. a 北京工业大学 固体微结构与性能研究所 固体微结构与性能北京市重点实验室 北京 100124;
    b 北京工业大学 材料科学与工程学院 功能材料教育部重点实验室 北京 100124
  • 出版日期:2018-07-15 发布日期:2018-06-06
  • 通讯作者: 刘丹敏,E-mail:dmliu@bjut.edu.cn E-mail:dmliu@bjut.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    项目受国家自然科学基金(Nos.51671006和61575010),北京自然科学基金(No.4162016)和北京市科学技术委员会(No.Z151100003315018)资助.

Preparation and Characterization of Black Phosphorus

Zhang Dandana, Yuan Zhenzhoua, Zhang Guoqinga, Tian Nana, Liu Danmina, Zhang Yongzheb   

  1. a Beijing Key Laboratory of Microstructure and Properties of Advanced Material, Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124;
    b Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Education Ministry of China, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124
  • Online:2018-07-15 Published:2018-06-06
  • Contact: 10.6023/A18040175 E-mail:dmliu@bjut.edu.cn
  • Supported by:

    Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51671006 and 61575010), the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing (No. 4162016), and the Science and Technology Commission of Beijing Municipality (No. Z151100003315018).

Black phosphorus has attracted broad interest because of their low-dimensional effect, and has become a new kind of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Phosphorus has several allotropes. Black phosphorus is the most thermodynamic stable in them. As a kind of two-dimensional materials, black phosphorus has high carrier mobility and on/off ratio. The band gap of black phosphorus can be adjusted by its number of layers from 0.3 to 2 eV. It is of great significance to the development of new infrared and near-infrared optoelectronic devices. Currently, the main methods for preparing black phosphorus are chemical vapor transfer and high energy ball milling methods. In this paper, black phosphorus was successfully synthesized from red phosphorus via chemical vapor transfer and high energy ball milling methods. Then black phosphorus was put in ethanol for 10 min to liquid exfoliation, in which the ultrasonic power was 400 W. The microstructures and stability of black phosphorus synthesized by two methods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). In situ electrical measurements of black phosphorus prepared by chemical vapor transfer were performed using a commercial scanning tunnelling microscope-transmission electron microscope probing system (STM-TEM, Nanofactory Instruments) inserted into a JEOL-2010F TEM. The microstructural characterization results show that there is some red phosphorus and amorphous phases in black phosphorus prepared by high energy ball milling method. On the contrary, the black phosphorus prepared by chemical vapor transfer method has no amorphous phases. The XRD results show that black phosphorus synthesized by chemical vapor transfer method did not change significantly after keeping in the air for 16 days. The DSC results show that the volatile points of the black phosphorus prepared by high energy ball milling and chemical vapor transfer methods are respectively 394.5 and 432.2℃, which means the latter has better thermal stability. The TEM results show that a layer or two layers of phosphorene via liquid exfoliation had been obtained, which is large in size and clean in surface. After being irradiated in TEM with a dose of 0.8 eV/(Å2·s) at 200 kV for 60 min, few new diffraction spots appeared in black phosphorus synthesized by chemical vapor transfer method, which indicates it is relatively stable under electron radiation in vacuum. In a word, the black phosphorus prepared by chemical vapor transfer method has large size, good crystallinity, high purity, and high stability. It can be used to prepare two-dimensional black phosphorus by mechanical exfoliation and liquid exfoliation, and then be applied to advanced microelectronic devices.

Key words: black phosphorus, high energy ball mill method, chemical vapor transport method, stability, electrical property