有机化学 ›› 2016, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (5): 1133-1142.DOI: 10.6023/cjoc201511034 上一篇    下一篇

研究简报

咪唑类含能离子液体的合成及性能研究

刘跃佳, 张晓娟, 宁弘历, 杨海君   

  1. 西南科技大学材料科学与工程学院 绵阳 621000
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-18 修回日期:2015-12-15 出版日期:2016-05-25 发布日期:2016-01-07
  • 通讯作者: 杨海君 E-mail:yanghai_1976@163.com

Studies on the Synthesis and Properties of Energetic Ionic Liquids Based on Imidazolium Compounds

Liu Yuejia, Zhang Xiaojuan, Ning Hongli, Yang Haijun   

  1. School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621000
  • Received:2015-11-18 Revised:2015-12-15 Online:2016-05-25 Published:2016-01-07

N-甲基咪唑、1,2-二甲基咪唑和2-氯乙醇为原料,经季铵化、硝化和复分解反应,合成了一系列咪唑类含能离子液体.通过紫外可见光谱、红外光谱、质谱、核磁共振和元素分析等对结构进行了表征.研究了其在常用有机溶剂中的溶解性,结果表明所合成的咪唑类含能离子液体在极性溶剂中具有良好的溶解性.采用热重分析法和差示扫描量热法研究了其热性能,结果表明所合成的含能离子液体具有良好的热稳定性,其中N-硝酰氧乙基咪唑硝酸盐的分解温度均在160℃左右,而N-羟乙基咪唑离子盐的分解温度均超过了190℃.差示扫描量热技术(DSC)实验表明,1-(2-硝酰氧乙基)-3-甲基咪唑硝酸盐和N-羟乙基咪唑类离子盐在二次升温过程中均发生了玻璃化转变,表现出了离子液体的特有性质.采用Kamlet-Jacobs方程估算了合成的含能离子液体的爆速和爆压等爆轰参数.

关键词: 含能材料, 季铵盐, 复分解反应, 热性能, 爆轰性能

Starting from N-methylimidazole, 1,2-dimethylimidazole and 2-chloroethanol, a series of imidazolium-based energetic ionic liquids were synthesized via quaternization, nitration and metathesis reactions. All the energetic ionic liquids were characterized by ultraviolet visible spectrum (UV-Vis), infrared spectrum (IR), mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elemental analysis. The solubility study of these ionic liquids was carried out with commonly used organic solvents, which showed that the energetic ionic liquids dissolved easily in polar solvents. Moreover, the ionic liquids had good thermo-stabilities indicated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TG-DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). TG-DTG analyses showed that N-nitrooxyethylimidazolium nitrate decomposed at about 160 ℃ and N-hydroxyethylimida-zolium ionic salts decomposed above 190 ℃. Furthermore, there was an obvious glass transition process for the energetic ionic liquids based on 1-(2-nitrooxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium and N-hydroxyethylimidazolium during the secondary heating process of DSC, which was the unique property of ionic liquids. Their densities and standard enthalpies of formation and detonation properties were calculated and analyzed.

Key words: energetic materials, quaternary ammonium, metathesis, thermal properties, detonation properties