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综述与进展

有机材料在潜指纹显现中的应用研究进展

金晓东a, 毕天博a, 辛然b, 吴国萍a, 徐同祥a, 马荣梁cc   

  1. a 江苏警官学院刑事科学技术系, 江苏省食品药品与环境犯罪技术检验工程实验室 南京 210031;
    b 江苏省公安厅物证鉴定中心 南京 210031;
    c 公安部物证鉴定中心 北京 100038
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-24 修回日期:2020-06-09 出版日期:2030-01-01 发布日期:2020-06-28
  • 通讯作者: 金晓东, 徐同祥, 马荣梁 E-mail:jinxiaodong@jspi.edu.cn;xutongxiang@jspi.edu.cn;marl2013@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(No. 2018YFC0807205)、江苏省自然科学基金(No. BK20191416)、公安部科技强警基础工作专项(No. 2019GABJC19)、江苏警官学院高层次引进人才科研启动费(No. JSPI17GKZL402)&“青苗工程”(No. JSPI2018QM)&食品药品与环境犯罪检验技术科技创新团队(2018SJYTD03)资助项目.

Advances in the Application of Organic Materials for the Development of Latent Fingerprints

Jin Xiaodonga, Bi Tianboa, Xin Ranb, Wu Guopinga, Xu Tongxianga, Ma Rongliangc   

  1. a Department of Criminal Science and Technology & Jiangsu Engineering Laboratory of Food, Drug, and Environment Criminal Investigation and Forensic Analysis, Jiangsu Police Institute, Nanjing, 210031;
    b Center of Forensic Science and Technology, Bureau of Public Security for Jiangsu Province, Nanjing, 210024;
    c Institute of Forensic Science, Ministry of Public Security, Beijing 100038
  • Received:2020-04-24 Revised:2020-06-09 Online:2030-01-01 Published:2020-06-28
  • Supported by:
    Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2018YFC0807205), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK20191416), the Basic Research Fund Scheme to Strengthen Policing, Ministry of Public Security of China (No. 2019GABJC19), High-level Introduction of Talent Scientific Research Start-up Fund (No. JSPI17GKZL402), the program of the Qingmiao Engineering (No. JSPI2018QM) and the Technology Innovation Team of Food, Drug, and Environment Criminal Investigation and Forensic Analysis (2018SJYTD03) of Jiangsu Police Institute.

犯罪现场中所发现的最重要的物证之一的指纹可以直接认定人身,在侦查破案和法庭诉讼中发挥重要作用。但在实际案件中,提取相关客体上的指纹时,这些指纹往往不能用肉眼直接观察到,故将其称之为“潜指纹”。尽管潜指纹显现技术已经有了较大的发展,但在无损、灵敏和高效检测等方面仍面临着诸多难题,其一定程度上阻碍了刑事技术人员的后续指纹鉴定工作。因此,开发高选择性、高灵敏度和方便快捷的潜指纹显现材料或显现技术就显得意义重大。本文在查阅国内外相关研究成果的基础上,简要回顾了目前广泛使用的传统有机材料,并较为详细的综述了近十年来新出现的有机荧光材料(如聚集诱导发光材料、共轭聚合物材料及其它有机荧光材料等)在潜指纹显现中的应用研究进展,着重概述各相关有机材料的设计理念、显现潜指纹的机理,并对存在的问题进行讨论,展望有机材料在潜指纹显现研究中的未来发展趋势。

关键词: 潜指纹显现, 有机材料, 聚集诱导发光, 共轭聚合物, 法庭科学

Fingerprint can directly identify the person, and it is one of the most important physical evidence in the criminal scene. Fingerprint has always been considered as the "head of physical evidence" and plays an important role in the investigation and court proceedings. However, the fingerprint on the relevant object can not be directly observed by human eyes in actual cases, so it is also called "latent fingerprint". Although the latent fingerprint development technology has made great progress, it still faces many difficulties in the aspects of nondestructive, sensitive and efficient. And, it will bring serious difficulties to the subsequent fingerprint identification work for the criminal technicians. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop highly selective, sensitive and convenient latent fingerprint developing materials or techniques. In view of this, on the basis of the research achievements at home and abroad, this paper briefly reviews the application of traditional organic materials widely used in latent fingerprint development and the new fluorescent organic materials, such as aggregation induced emission materials, conjugated polymer materials and other organic fluorescent materials, in latent fingerprint development in recent ten years. The design concept of related organic materials and the mechanism of developing latent fingerprints are summarized. Finally, the existing problems are discussed, and the future development trend of organic materials in developing latent fingerprints are prospected.

Key words: the development of latent fingerprints, organic materials, aggregation-induced emission, conjugated polymer, forensic science