Chin. J. Org. Chem. ›› 2018, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (10): 2761-2766.DOI: 10.6023/cjoc201803007 Previous Articles     Next Articles



杨中华, 刘兰野, 赵益鹤, 洪远琳, 阮鸿力, 吕成伟   

  1. 辽宁师范大学化学化工学院 大连 116029
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-05 修回日期:2018-05-31 发布日期:2018-06-07
  • 通讯作者: 吕成伟,
  • 基金资助:


Choline Chloride as Catalyst towards the Attractive Yonemitsu Reaction of Benzaldehyde, Indole, and Malononitrile

Yang Zhonghua, Liu Lanye, Zhao Yihe, Hong Yuanlin, Ruan Hongli, Lü Chengwei   

  1. College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029
  • Received:2018-03-05 Revised:2018-05-31 Published:2018-06-07
  • Contact: 10.6023/cjoc201803007
  • Supported by:

    Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21403100), the National Students Program for Innovation and Entrepreneurship Training (No. 201710165304).

Using choline chloride as cheap and safe accelerator was efficient to promote the Yonemitsu type condensation of indole, benzaldehyde, and malononitrile. More importantly, introducing right amount of water in reaction system was crucial to get desired 3-substituted indoles in good to excellent yields. Due to the catalyst has excellent solubility in aqueous ethanol, the final concoction was easy to separate. Many desired products could be obtained after filtration and washed with cold aqueous ethanol without further purification. Catalyst could further reuse for five more reaction cycles with negligible loss in activity.

Key words: 3-substituted indoles, Yonemitsu condensation, multicomponent reactions, choline chloride, organocatalysis, synthetic methods