化学学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (12): 1607-1610.DOI: 10.6023/A13080904 上一篇    下一篇

研究通讯

纳米材料在生物分析应用中存在的若干问题

宋延超a, 刘俊秀b, 张阳阳a, 史文a, 马会民a   

  1. a 中国科学院化学研究所 活体分析化学重点实验室 北京 100190;
    b 北京大学第三医院耳鼻咽喉科 北京 100191
  • 收稿日期:2013-08-29 出版日期:2013-12-14 发布日期:2013-09-10
  • 通讯作者: 刘俊秀, 马会民 E-mail:liujunxiusanyuan@sina.com;mahm@iccas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    项目受国家自然科学基金(No. 21321003)、973计划(2011CB935800,2010CB933502)和中国科学院资助.

Some Problems of Nanomaterials in Bioanalytical Applications

Song Yanchaoa, Liu Junxiub, Zhang Yangyanga, Shi Wena, Ma Huimina   

  1. a Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190;
    b Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191
  • Received:2013-08-29 Online:2013-12-14 Published:2013-09-10
  • Supported by:

    Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21321003), the 973 Program (2011CB935800, and 2010CB933502) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

从三个方面考察与总结了一些常用的纳米材料(如碲化镉量子点,纳米金和碳纳米点)在生物分析应用中存在的问题:(1)纳米材料的毒性. 三种裸露纳米材料的平行比较实验表明,碲化镉量子点能够导致细胞代谢活性下降、细胞发生皱缩、甚至死亡,具有很强的毒性;纳米金在高浓度(30 μg/mL)时可对细胞代谢产生一定的抑制作用;而碳纳米点对细胞几乎不产生影响,具有较好的生物相容性. 三种纳米材料的相对毒性为:碲化镉量子点>>纳米金>碳纳米点. 这种相对毒性还得到了绿豆芽生长抑制实验的支持. (2)纳米材料的非均一性. 这主要表现在以下几个方面:粒径分布的非均一性,表面修饰/性质的非均一性,以及在生物样品(如细胞)中分布的非均一性. (3)纳米材料的环境敏感性或稳定性. 实验表明,碲化镉量子点、纳米金和碳纳米点的光学性质对环境pH的改变均十分敏感,而且纳米金不抗盐,在离子强度较高的盐溶液中不稳定、易聚集. 这些问题的严重性在许多以往的研究中并未引起人们的全面重视. 我们希望通过本研究以及对这些问题的再次探讨,能促使人们在实际应用中对相关纳米材料进行重新的审视和合理的选择. 此外,为克服这些问题,我们在文中提到的一些措施可供参考.

关键词: 纳米材料, 碲化镉量子点, 纳米金, 碳纳米点, 毒性, 非均一性, 环境敏感性, 生物分析

By taking the three commonly used CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs), Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) and carbon nanodots (C-dots) as example, we have demonstrated and summarized some noteworthy problems of nanomaterials in bioanalytical applications. These problems mainly include the toxicity, microscopic heterogeneity and environmental susceptivity of nanomaterials, which had been separately discussed with different depths but unfortunately are often overlooked in practice. In the present work, a parallel comparative investigation was first made on cytotoxicity, which reveals that CdTe QDs can lead to the decrease of cell metabolic activity, cell shrinkage, and even cell death; Au NPs at a higher concentration (30 μg/mL) decrease the metabolic activity of cells to a small extent; C-dots exert no obvious toxicity to live cells, showing good biocompatibility. These studies indicate that the relative toxicity of the three nanomaterials in their bare forms is CdTe QDs>>AuNPs>C-dots, which is further supported by the inhibition experiment on the growth of green gram sprouts. Second, the microscopic heterogeneity of nanomaterials was compared with that of resorufin (a small molecular fluorescent dye) by cell imaging experiments, which clearly shows that the distribution of nanomaterials in cells is much less uniform than that of small molecular probes. Besides, the heterogeneity of both size distribution and surface modification/property of nanomaterials is also unavoidable. Third, the environmental susceptivity of nanomaterials was studied, and the results showed that spectroscopic properties of the above three nanomaterials are all sensitive to the pH change of solution. Moreover, AuNPs are also rather susceptible to the ionic strength of solution. The above three problems should arouse high attention of researchers in some bioanalyses. In addition, the measures that we suggested in the paper may be helpful to solve these problems to some extent.

Key words: nanomaterials, CdTe quantum dots, Au nanoparticles, carbon nanodots, toxicity, microscopic heterogeneity, environmental susceptivity, bioanalysis