化学学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (5): 395-402.DOI: 10.6023/A15030174 上一篇    下一篇

研究论文

含CF3CF2CF2C(CF3)2基团支链型氟表面活性剂的合成及性能研究

沙敏a,b, 张丁b, 潘仁明b, 邢萍a, 姜标a,b   

  1. a 中国科学院上海有机化学研究所 天然产物有机合成化学重点实验室 上海市徐汇区零陵路345号 200032;
    b 南京理工大学 化工学院 江苏省南京市玄武区孝陵卫200号 210094
  • 收稿日期:2015-03-13 出版日期:2015-05-14 发布日期:2015-04-08
  • 通讯作者: 姜标 E-mail:jiangb@sioc.ac.cn

Synthesis and Properties Study of Novel Branched Fluorinated Surfactants with CF3CF2CF2C(CF3)2 Group

Sha Mina,b, Zhang Dingb, Pan Renmingb, Xing Pinga, Jiang Biaoa,b   

  1. a CAS Key Laboratory of Synthetic Chemistry of Natural Substances, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai 200032;
    b School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiaolingwei, Nanjing 210094
  • Received:2015-03-13 Online:2015-05-14 Published:2015-04-08

全氟辛酸/全氟辛基磺酸(PFOA/PFOS)类氟表面活性剂因不易被生物降解且对环境有毒害作用, 被列为持久性有机污染物. 采用引入氟碳支链的策略作为PFOA/PFOS替代物的研发取向, 以六氟丙烯二聚体为原料合成了新型阳离子型、两性型、双子型和非离子型氟表面活性剂, 并对它们的表面活性和急性毒性性能进行了测试. 结果表明, 所合成的支链型表面活性剂表面活性高且毒性低. 因此, 基于六氟丙烯二聚体(HFPD)合成PFOS/PFOA替代物是一种简单、经济且环保的方法.

关键词: 全氟辛酸(PFOA), 全氟-2-甲基-2-戊烯, 支链型氟表面活性剂, 表面张力, 临界胶束浓度, 急性毒性

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) were listed under Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants owing to their poor biodegradability and toxic effects in the environment, so various strategies were reported for synthesizing non-bioaccumulable alternatives to them. Herein, we described our recent strategies for synthesis of non-bioaccumulable fluorinated surfactants by introducing branched perfluorinated chain using perfluoro-2-methyl-2-pentene as starting material. Novel branched fluorinated cationic, gemini and amphoteric surfactants were designed and prepared through a four-step route. They all have low solubility in water and exhibit poor ability to reduce the surface tension of water. A series of branched fluorinated nonionic surfactants with different length of hydrophilic chains were synthesized via a three-step route. The solubility becomes larger with the increase of the value of polymerization degree of polyethylene glycol. But, the surface tension measurement results show that their ability and efficiency to reduce the surface tension of water change little when the value of polymerization degree of polyethylene glycol is equal to or greater than 4. All the values of surface activities of the novel 2022 surfactants (take the compound 20 for example, about 21.4 mN/m at the cmc 4.4×10-5 mol/L) are lower than that of sodium perfluorooctanoate (about 24.7 mN/m at the cmc 3.1×10-2 mol/L). Methyl-benzenesulfonic acid (compound 23) was synthesized through a two-step route. Both the steps are easy work-up, mild reaction conditions, low cost and high yields. The surfactant exhibits excellent ability to reduce the surface tension of water to 20.8 mN/m. Besides, it has good salt-resistance. The acute toxicity of 20 was investigated and the result shows that the acute oral toxicity LD50 Value of the compound 20 was 3160 mg/kg which is higher than that of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (C7F15COONH4, 470~540 mg/kg). So preparing branched fluorinated surfactants using hexafluoropropylene (HFPD) is a simple, economical and environmentally friendly method for synthesis of alternatives to PFOA and PFOS.

Key words: perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoro-2-methyl-2-pentene, branched fluorinated surfactant, surface tension, critical micelle concentration, acute toxicity