化学学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 77 ›› Issue (9): 906-910.DOI: 10.6023/A19020070 上一篇    下一篇

所属专题: 有机自由基化学

研究通讯

氧气氧化铜催化的苯胺邻位叠氮化反应

林凤闺蓉a, 梁宇杰a, 郦鑫耀a, 宋颂a*, 焦宁ab*()   

  1. a北京大学药学院 天然药物及仿生药物国家重点实验室 北京 100191
    b华东师范大学 上海市绿色化学与化工过程绿色化重点实验室 上海 200062
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-27 出版日期:2019-09-15 发布日期:2019-03-22
  • 通讯作者: 宋颂,焦宁 E-mail:ssong@bjmu.edu.cn;jiaoning@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    项目受国家自然科学基金资助(Nos. 21632001);项目受国家自然科学基金资助(21772002)

Copper-catalyzed ortho C-H Azidation of Anilines Using Molecular Oxygen as Terminal Oxidant

Lin, Fengguironga, Liang, Yujiea, Li, Xinyaoa, Song, Songa*, Jiao, Ningab*()   

  1. aState Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191
    bShanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062
  • Received:2019-02-27 Online:2019-09-15 Published:2019-03-22
  • Contact: Song, Song,Jiao, Ning E-mail:ssong@bjmu.edu.cn;jiaoning@pku.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Nos. 21632001);Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21772002)

叠氮取代的苯胺是有机合成中应用广泛的结构单元. 通过C—H键活化策略来制备叠氮基苯胺衍生物往往需要使用当量的剧烈氧化剂, 造成反应的整体原子经济性低, 官能团耐受性差. 本文使用廉价、绿色的氧气作为最终氧化剂, 发展了高效的铜催化苯胺C—H键叠氮化的方法. 该转化具有反应条件温和、区域选择性单一和官能团兼容性广等优点.

关键词: 氧气, 苯胺, 叠氮化, 碳-氢键活化, 铜催化

Organic azides are widely used in chemical synthesis, drug discovery, bioconjugation, and material science, owing to their flexible transformations to useful chemicals such as amines, amides, isocyanates and heterocycles. In light of the diverse value of azide-containing compounds, numerous synthetic methods have been established to access this significant functionality. Among them, direct C—H azidation reactions have attracted particular attention due to their cost- and atom-efficiency. Previous methods for the preparation of azido-substituted anilines require the employment of stoichiometric amount of harsh oxidants such as hyperoxides and hypervalent iodine reagents. To synthesize these valuable compounds in an economical and environmentally benign manner, a simple and efficient copper-catalyzed ortho C—H azidation of anilines using molecular oxygen as terminal oxidant has been developed. The reaction proceeded smoothly with the assistance of pyridine at room temperature, and afforded the synthetically useful azido-substituted anilines in moderate to good yields. Notably, the process of dehydrogenation coupling of anilines to azo compounds was significantly suppressed in this protocol. This method allows for the highly regioselective formation of C—N3 bonds under mild reaction conditions, and exhibits good functional group and substrate scope compatibility. A general procedure for the azidation of anilines is as follows: a mixture of aniline (0.4 mmol) and CuBr (5.7 mg, 0.04 mmol) is loaded in a 20 mL Schlenk tube, which is equipped with a magnetic stir bar and subjected to evacuation/flushing with oxygen three times. Subsequently, DCM (4.0 mL), pyridine (6.3 mg, 0.08 mmol) and TMSN3 (92.2 mg, 0.8 mmol) are added to the Schlenk tube via syringe, and the formed mixture is stirred at room temperature until the amount of target product no longer increases, which is monitored by TLC. After completion of the reaction, the solution is concentrated under vacuum and further purified by column chromatography on silica gel to give the desired product (eluent: petroleum ether/ethyl acetate).

Key words: molecular oxygen, aniline, azidation, C—H bond activation;, copper catalysis