化学学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (10): 739-748.DOI: 10.6023/A18080340 上一篇    下一篇

综述

耐极端条件含氟材料的研究进展

金维则, 陆国林, 李永军, 黄晓宇   

  1. 中国科学院上海有机化学研究所 上海 200032
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-17 出版日期:2018-10-15 发布日期:2018-09-12
  • 通讯作者: 黄晓宇 E-mail:xyhuang@sioc.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:金维则,中国科学院上海有机化学研究所助理研究员,2015年于The University of Akron取得高分子工程硕士学位.主要从事功能高分子材料的研究.;陆国林,中国科学院上海有机化学研究所副研究员,2013年入选中国科学院青年创新促进会.目前主要从事接枝共聚物、刺激响应性聚合物和高性能含氟聚合物的研究.已主持完成了国家自然科学基金青年基金(20904065)和面上项目(21174158)各1项,目前主持国家自然科学基金面上项目"主链含有氟甲基/三氟甲硫基的聚丙烯酸酯类共聚物的构建"(21674124).作为第一作者或通讯作者,已在Polym.Chem.,J.Polym.Sci.Polym.Chem.和Polymer等国际学术期刊上发表SCI论文20多篇.
  • 基金资助:

    项目受国家重大科学研究计划项目(No.2015CB931900),国家杰出青年科学基金(No.51825304),国家自然科学基金重点项目(No.21632009),国家自然科学基金面上项目(Nos.21674124,51773222和51773223),中国科学院战略性科技先导专项(B类)(No.XDB20000000),上海市基础研究重大项目(No.18JC1410600)及上海市科技创新项目(No.17DZ1205400)资助.

Recent Advances in Fluorine-containing Materials with Extreme Environment Resistance

Jin Weize, Lu Guolin, Li Yongjun, Huang Xiaoyu   

  1. Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032
  • Received:2018-08-17 Online:2018-10-15 Published:2018-09-12
  • Contact: 10.6023/A18080340 E-mail:xyhuang@sioc.ac.cn
  • Supported by:

    Project supported by the National Major Scientific Research Project (No. 2015CB931900), the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (No. 51825304), the National Major Natural Science Foundation Project (No. 21632009), National Natural Science Foundation Project (Nos. 21674124, 51773222, 51773223), Special Science and Technology Pilot Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Class B) (No. XDB20000000), Shanghai Major Basic Research Project (No. 18JC1410600) and Shanghai Scientific and Technological Innovation Project (No. 17DZ1205400).

耐极端条件材料是指能在普通碳氢材料不耐受的极端环境(如:高温≥ 200℃、低温≤-50℃、紫外辐射1000 h等)下正常使用的材料.而电负性最强的氟元素与碳形成的碳氟键是最强的分子键之一,引入氟原子的材料也展示出特别优异的各项性能,因此含氟化合物在耐极端条件材料方面的应用研究得到了广泛的关注.本文对耐极端条件含氟材料的发展历史、研究现状与发展趋势进行了综述.首先,对氟化方法,包括碳-氟键形成及断裂、氟对碳-碳键形成的影响以及多氟芳基化方法等进行了介绍.接着,介绍了满足锂同位素萃取的苛刻条件的含氟萃取剂,应用于航空、航天、汽车等领域的含氟耐热材料,以及应用于电子设备、通信领域的高性能含氟低介电常数材料的相关研究.将来如何进一步发展优化耐极端条件含氟材料,并将这些研究成果投入大规模使用是科研人员努力的方向.

关键词: 耐极端条件, 含氟材料, 纳米材料, 聚合物, 合成

The extreme environment resistance materials can be normally used under severe conditions (e.g. T ≤ -50℃ or T ≥ 200℃, 1000 h exposed to UV light etc.), which common hydrocarbon materials cannot tolerate. It was found that fluorine atoms can effectively enhance the extreme environment resistance property of materials. The reason why fluorine atoms have such ability is mainly due to two key factors:first, fluorine and carbon elements are in the same cycle of the periodic table, the electronegativity of fluorine is large (4.0) and its atomic radius is small; second, polarization of fluorine atom is extremely low. The C-F bond is the strongest chemical single bond (≥ 116 kcal/mol) in which the carbon atom participates. It is a short bond and highly polarized. This paper makes brief introduction to the development and present situation of fluorine-containing materials with extreme environment resistance. In the field of fluorination methods, the history of fluorine chemistry since 1970s, the researches on the formation and fracture of carbon-fluorine bond, the influence of fluorine on the formation of carbon-carbon bond and the related researches on polyfluoro-arylation methods are introduced. This paper also introduces the important results of fluorine-containing materials in lithium isotope extraction, thermo-stable fluoropolymers which can be applied in aviation, aerospace, automobile and other fields, as well as the preparation of high-performance fluorine-containing materials with low dielectric constant in electronic equipment and communication fields. In the future, how to further develop and optimize the fluorine-containing materials with extreme environment resistance and put the research results into large-scale use is the working direction for researchers.

Key words: extreme environment resistance, fluorine-containing material, nanomaterial, polymer, synthesis