Acta Chim. Sinica ›› 2016, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (6): 488-497.DOI: 10.6023/A16010035 Previous Articles     Next Articles



袁振洲a, 刘丹敏a, 田楠a, 张国庆a, 张永哲b   

  1. a 北京工业大学 固体微结构与性能研究所 固体微结构与性能北京市重点实验室 北京 100124;
    b 北京工业大学 材料科学与工程学院 功能材料教育部重点实验室 北京 100124
  • 投稿日期:2016-01-16 发布日期:2016-05-13
  • 通讯作者: 刘丹敏
  • 基金资助:

    项目受国家自然科学基金(NSFC) (Nos. 51302081, 61575010)、北京市科技新星(No. Z141109001814053)、北京市科委先导与优势材料创新项目(No. Z151100003315018)、中科院半导体材料科学重点实验室开放课题(No. KLSMS-1404)及中央基本科研项目(No. 222015Y-4006)资助.

Structure, Preparation and Properties of Phosphorene

Yuan Zhenzhoua, Liu Danmina, Tian Nana, Zhang Guoqinga, Zhang Yongzheb   

  1. a Beijing Key Laboratory of Microstructure and Properties of Advanced Material, Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124;
    b Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Education Ministry of China, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124
  • Received:2016-01-16 Published:2016-05-13
  • Supported by:

    Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Nos. 51302081 and 61575010), the Beijing Nova Program (No. Z141109001814053), the Science and Technology Commission of Beijing Municipality (No. Z151100003315018), the Open subject of Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KLSMS-1404) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 222015Y-4006).

Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted broad interest because of their low-dimensional effect, and black phosphorus has become a member of them due to the successful preparation. Phosphorus has several allotropes, white phosphorus, red phosphorus and black phosphorus. Black phosphorus is most thermodynamic stable in them. Black phosphorus was obtained by a phase transition from white or red phosphorus at high pressure and high temperature. It is a natural p-type semiconductor in which each layer is vertically stacked by the van der Waals force. The thickness of black phosphorus can be scaled down to the atomic layer scale known as phosphorene by mechanical exfoliation or liquid exfoliation. In nowadays, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has also been used in synthesis of phosphorene film. Compared with black phosphorus, phosphorene’s physical properties have significant changes. The band gap in bulk black phosphorus is 0.3 eV and can be expanded to 1.0 to 1.5 eV depending on the layer numbers. The range of phosphorene band gap corresponds to an absorption spectrum between visible light to infrared. Moreover, the band gap of phosphorene is also highly sensitive to the strain either in-plane or out-of-plane. The phosphorene based field effect transistor (FET) exhibits a high mobility and appreciably high on/off ratios, and the mobility is thickness dependent. Unlike other two-dimensional (2D) materials, phosphorene has in-plane anisotropy which is suitable for the detecting of polarized light. Hence, the unique properties in black phosphorus, along with its high carrier mobility, make it as a promising material in electronic applications. Nevertheless, the poor chemical and structural stability of black phosphorus and phosphorene raises important concerns. In the past century, the synthesis, physical properties, and device applications have been extensively investigated in various studies. In this review article, a lot of references of black phosphorus are cited to introduce systematically the research progresses of structure and preparation, the study of material properties and device performance, the chemistry of the degradation process and the anti-degradation treatments. At last, the development trend of phosphorene is mentioned.

Key words: 2D semiconducting materials, black phosphorus, preparation, material properties, nano device performance