化学学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (12): 959-968.DOI: 10.6023/A16100553 上一篇    下一篇

所属专题: 聚集诱导发光

综述

靶标性酞菁类光敏剂的光动力疗法研究进展

李明乐, 彭孝军   

  1. 大连理工大学 精细化工国家重点实验室 大连 116023
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-17 出版日期:2016-12-15 发布日期:2016-12-05
  • 通讯作者: 彭孝军 E-mail:pengxj@dlut.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    项目受国家自然科学基金(Nos.21136002,21421005)资助.

Research Progress on the Phthalocyanine Based Targeting Photosensitizers in Photodynamic Therapy

Li Mingle, Peng Xiaojun   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023
  • Received:2016-10-17 Online:2016-12-15 Published:2016-12-05
  • Supported by:

    Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21136002, 21421005).

光动力治疗(Photodynamic therapy,PDT)作为一种有别于传统癌症治疗方式的新型疗法,近些年来受到了科学家们越来越多的关注.它凭借着自身创伤性小,毒性低微,适用性好,可协同手术治疗以及可重复治疗等独特优势,在许多肿瘤的治疗方面有着广泛的应用.本文简要概述了光动力疗法的原理以及光敏剂的发展历程,并对理想光敏剂的特点作了总结.目前,以酞菁类化合物为主的第三代光敏剂已经成为光动力疗法的研究热点,然而如何提高光敏剂分子的靶向性达到精准的光动力治疗仍然是亟待解决的问题.因此,主要综述了近年来靶向性酞菁类光敏剂的研究进展,并对未来光敏剂的重点研究方向做出了展望.从目前来看,如何克服癌症低氧微环境的限制,发展Type I型不依赖氧的体系以及光穿透力强的靶向光敏剂在光动力治疗方面存在着巨大的潜质,有望成为新一代十分优良的光动力疗法用光敏剂.

关键词: 光动力疗法, 酞菁, 靶向, 光敏剂

In recent years,photodynamic therapy (PDT) technology,as a noninvasive method of treating malignant tumors and age-related macular degeneration,which is different from the traditional cancer treatments,has drawn more and more attention of scientists.PDT treatment relies on the combination of photosensitizer,oxygen and light,when the photosensitizer is irradiated by special light,it can generate singlet oxygen,which is a cytotoxic agent can eradicate tumors via vasculature damage and cell damage,and sometimes the response of immune system.Due to its special advantages,i.e small traumatic,low toxicity,good compatibility,collaborative surgical treatment and repeatable treatment etc.,PDT is widely used in many kinds of tumor treatments.Current practice of photodynamic therapy is limited to a few functionalized photosensitizers,for example porphyrins,however these compounds has several disadvantageous properties such as low absorption in the tissue transparency window (650~900 nm),prolonged skin photosensitivity,and slow clearance rate from body.This has inspired efforts to develop more effective PDT photosensitizers with improved photophysical characteristics and special targeting advantages.So in this review,the authors briefly outline the theories of PDT as well as the development process of photosensitizer,and summarize the characteristics of ideal photosensitizer.At present,the third generation photosensitizers mainly based on phthalocyanines have become a research highlight in PDT.However,how to improve the targeting of photosensitizer so as to achieve precise photodynamic efficiency is still an urgent problem to be solved.Therefore,this review mainly summarizes the recent research on phthalocyanine based targeting photosensitizers.In addition,the development of key research directions in the future has also been pointed out.According to the present researches,in the aspects of PDT,overcoming the limitation of cancer hypoxic microenvironment,developing Type I independently from oxygen,and penetrating more deeply targeting photosensitizers possess enormous potential,and they may become a kind of photosensitizer with excellent performance in the field of photodynamic therapy.

Key words: photodynamic therapy, phthalocyanine, targeting, photosensitizer