化学学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (3): 277-288.DOI: 10.6023/A13080908 上一篇    下一篇

所属专题: 石墨烯

研究评论

石墨烯表界面化学修饰及其功能调控

林源为a,b, 郭雪峰b,c   

  1. a 北京大学前沿交叉学科研究院 纳米科学与技术研究中心 北京 100871;
    b 北京大学纳米化学研究中心 北京分子科学国家实验室 分子动态与稳态国家重点实验室 化学与分子工程学院 北京 100871;
    c 北京大学工学院材料科学与工程系 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2013-08-29 出版日期:2014-03-14 发布日期:2013-10-30
  • 通讯作者: 郭雪峰,E-mail:guoxf@pku.edu.cn;Tel.:0086-010-62757789;Fax:0086-010-62757789 E-mail:guoxf@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    项目受国家自然科学基金(Nos. 21225311,21373014,51121091)和国家重点基础研究发展计划(973)(No. 2012CB921404)资助.

Chemical Modification of Graphene and Its Applications

Lin Yuanweia,b, Guo Xuefengb,c   

  1. a Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871;
    b Center for NanoChemistry, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871;
    c Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2013-08-29 Online:2014-03-14 Published:2013-10-30
  • Supported by:

    Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21225311, 21373014 and 51121091), and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973) (No. 2012CB921404).

石墨烯属于碳纳米材料家族中的一员,是一种单层的二维原子晶体,具有高硬度、高导热性、高载流子迁移率等诸多优良特性,被认为是新一代电子学器件的重要基础材料. 近年来我们课题组利用石墨烯的这些优良特性在其表界面化学修饰及其功能调控方面开展了一系列研究工作. 我们对石墨烯表界面进行了共价或非共价化学修饰,在一定程度上打开了石墨烯的带隙,并发展了具有传感功能的石墨烯器件. 我们还制备了基于石墨烯的纳米电极,发展了新一代分子电子器件的普适性制备方法,实现了单分子器件的功能化. 展望未来,以石墨烯为代表的碳基纳米材料将继续在纳电子器件研究领域发挥重要作用.

关键词: 石墨烯, 化学修饰, 功能调控, 纳米电极, 分子电子器件

Graphene, a two-dimensional crystalline monolayer made of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, holds a set of remarkable electronic and physical properties, such as ballistic transport with low resistivity, high chemical stability, and high mechanical strength. By taking advantage of these, in recent years our research group has performed a series of studies for modifying the surfaces of graphene and tuning its properties. These studies can be mainly divided into two categories. First, we opened graphene's band gap to some extent through covalent and/or noncovalent chemical modifications, and installed sensing functions into graphene. In detail, we grafted nitrophenyl group onto graphene through an electrochemical method and methyl group onto graphene by plasma treatment to open its band gap. Also, we assembled lead sulfide or titanium dioxide onto graphene through electron beam evaporation to achieve optical or gas sensing. A rotaxane molecule with a bistable structure was also assembled onto graphene through π-π stacking to obtain optical switches with logic capability. On the other hand, we also fabricated graphene-based nanoelectrodes for making a new-generation molecular electronic devices with diverse functionalities. In detail, we cut graphene using electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching to obtain graphene electrodes. Poly(3-hexyl thiophene) or copper phthalocyanine was spin-coated onto these electrodes to achieve field effect transistors with the high carrier mobility and photoresponsive property. We further developed graphene nanoelectrodes by dash-line lithography, and molecular bridges with different functions were connected between these nanoelectrodes. These single molecule devices can switch their conductance upon exposure to external stimuli, such as metal ion, pH and light. Looking into the future, graphene, as a representative of carbon-based nanomaterials, will continue to play an important role in the area of nano/molecular electronics.

Key words: graphene, chemical modification, nanoelectrode, molecular electronic device