化学学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (1): 21-29.DOI: 10.6023/A13080830 上一篇    下一篇

综述

钠离子电池:储能电池的一种新选择

李慧a, 吴川a,b, 吴锋a,b, 白莹a,b   

  1. a 北京理工大学化工与环境学院 环境科学与工程北京市重点实验室 北京 100081;
    b 国家高新技术绿色材料发展中心 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2013-08-07 出版日期:2014-01-14 发布日期:2013-11-14
  • 通讯作者: 白莹,E-mail:membrane@bit.edu.cn E-mail:membrane@bit.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    项目受国家973计划(No. 2009CB220100)和教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划(No. NCET-13-0033)资助.

Sodium Ion Battery: A Promising Energy-storage Candidate for Supporting Renewable Electricity

Li Huia, Wu Chuanaa,b, Wu Fengaa,b, Bai Yinga,b   

  1. a Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081;
    b National Development Center of High Technology Green Materials, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2013-08-07 Online:2014-01-14 Published:2013-11-14
  • Supported by:

    Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2009CB220100) and Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (No. NCET-13-0033).

钠离子电池在20世纪70年代末80年代初得到关注,但因锂离子电池优异的电化学性能而没有得到广泛研究. 随着电动汽车、智能电网时代的到来,锂资源短缺将成为制约其发展的重要因素. 因此,亟需发展下一代综合性能优异的储能电池体系. 钠和锂具有相似的物化性质,且钠资源丰富,成本低廉,是非常有发展潜力的电池体系,近年来得到了国内外研究人员的广泛关注. 简要综述了近年来钠离子电池的研究成果,就层状NaxMO2 (M=Co,Ni,Fe,Mn,V等)材料、聚阴离子型材料、金属氟化物等正极材料及碳基负极材料、合金和金属氧化物等负极材料的电化学性能进行了介绍,阐述了有机体系电解质和凝胶电解质在钠离子电池中的应用,并对其存在的问题以及未来发展方向作了探讨.

关键词: 钠离子电池, 正极, 负极, 电解质

Sodium ion battery was initially researched alongside lithium ion battery in the late 1970s and through the 1980s. For the benefits of lithium ion batteries, namely higher energy density as a result of higher potential and lower molecular mass, shifted the focus of the battery community away from sodium. While lithium-ion battery technology is quite mature, there remain questions regarding lithium ion battery safety, lifetime, poor low-temperature performance, and cost. Furthermore, the rising demand for Li would force us to consider the growing price of Li resources due to the relative low abundance and uneven distribution of Li. Therefore, to explore low cost, highly safe, and cycling stable rechargeable batteries based on abundant resources is an urgent task. Due to the huge availability of sodium, its low price and the similarity of both Li and Na insertion chemistries, sodium-based batteries have the potential for meeting large scale grid energy storage needs. In spite of the lower energy density and voltage of Na-ion based technologies, they can be focused on applications where the energy density requirement is less drastic, such as electrical grid storage. In the past couple of years, the sodium-ion battery field presented lots of sodium-ion technologies and electrode materials. These range from layered oxides materials to polyanion-based materials, carbons and other insertion materials for sodium-ion batteries, many of which hold promise for future sodium-based energy storage applications. Much work has to be done in the field of Na-ion in order to catch up with Li-ion technology. Cathodic and anodic materials must be optimized, and new electrolytes will be the key point for Na-ion success. This review will gather the up-to-date knowledge about Na-ion battery electrode materials and electrolyte, with the aim of providing a wide view of the system that has already been explored and a starting point for the new research on this battery technology.

Key words: sodium ion batteries, cathode materials, anode materials, electrolyte