化学学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 77 ›› Issue (8): 717-728.DOI: 10.6023/A19050185 上一篇    下一篇

综述

表面活性剂用于废水处理研究的新进展

赵微微a,b, 王毅琳a,b   

  1. a 中国科学院化学研究所 胶体界面与化学热力学实验室 北京 100190;
    b 中国科学院大学 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-17 出版日期:2019-08-15 发布日期:2019-07-10
  • 通讯作者: 王毅琳 E-mail:yilinwang@iccas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    项目受国家自然科学基金(No.21633002)资助.

Development of Surfactant Application in Wastewater Treatment

Zhao Weiweia,b, Wang Yilina,b   

  1. a Key Laboratory of Colloid, Interface and Chemical Thermodynamics, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190;
    b University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2019-05-17 Online:2019-08-15 Published:2019-07-10
  • Contact: 10.6023/A19050185 E-mail:yilinwang@iccas.ac.cn
  • Supported by:

    Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21633002).

随着工业化和农业现代化的迅速发展,水污染问题逐渐成为人们关注的焦点.大量工业废水的随意排放造成水体污染,导致可利用的淡水资源十分匮乏.因此,如何低成本,安全、高效地处理工业废水,提高水资源的重复利用效率已经成为亟待解决的重要问题.近年来,基于表面活性剂的分离技术在工业和分析领域取得了突破性进展,其绿色环保和低能耗的特点为废水处理提供了理想的选择.介绍了基于表面活性剂的废水处理技术——胶束增强超滤、表面活性剂改性的固相吸附和基于表面活性剂液液相分离的提取技术的原理以及研究进展,旨在为研究人员提供参考,进一步推动污水处理技术的发展.

关键词: 表面活性剂, 废水处理, 液液相分离, 胶束增强超滤, 吸附

Water is the most important and essential component for the existing activities of human beings, animals and plants. It is estimated that the total amount of water on the earth is about 1.3 billion tons, but 97% of that is salty ocean water and not suitable for drinking. With the rapid growth of population, industrialization and agricultural modernization and other geological and environmental changes, the water environment is deteriorating continuously. Water pollution and water shortage are two of the most important environmental problems in the world. Consequently, water pollution has become a critical issue in recent years. Pollutants in wastewater include organic, inorganic, biological compounds. As many of them have serious toxicity and even show carcinogenic, the release of considerable amount of wastewater into environment causes damages to human being and aquatic conditions, and further leads to the shortage of water resources. Therefore, the need for wastewater treatment in a low-cost, safe and efficient way and improving the reuse efficiency of water resources have become a must. In recent years, surfactant-based separation techniques have made a great progress in industrial and analytical areas. It offers many advantages including low-energy consumption and environment protection, and has been proved efficient in the separation of many inorganic and organic pollutants. To enhance the application of surfactant-based separation techniques in wastewater treatment, it is very important to have a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in this process. The mechanism and development of surfactant-based wastewater treatment techniques, including micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF), surfactant-modified solid phase adsorption and surfactant-based liquid-liquid phase separation are summarized. The effects of the surfactant characteristics, the chemistry of the pollutants and the solution conditions used in experiments on the extract kinetics and efficiencies are discussed. This review aims to provide reference and inspiration for researchers and promote the development of wastewater treatment technologies.

Key words: surfactant, wastewater treatment, coacervation, micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration, adsorption