Acta Chimica Sinica ›› 2024, Vol. 82 ›› Issue (2): 146-151.DOI: 10.6023/A23110498 Previous Articles     Next Articles



顾晓瑜a, 李进a, 孙千b, 王朝阳b,*()   

  1. a 广汽埃安新能源汽车股份有限公司 广州 510640
    b 华南理工大学材料科学与工程学院 广州 510640
  • 投稿日期:2023-11-14 发布日期:2024-01-17
  • 作者简介:
    † 共同第一作者
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(22275059); 广东省科技计划项目(2021A0505110001)

Microcalorimetry Analysis of Thermal Runaway Process in Lithium-ion Batteries

Xiaoyu Gua, Jin Lia, Qian Sunb, Chaoyang Wangb()   

  1. a GAC Aion New Energy Automobile Co., Ltd., Guangzhou 510640
    b School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640
  • Received:2023-11-14 Published:2024-01-17
  • Contact: E-mail:
  • About author:
    † These authors contributed equally to this work
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(22275059); Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province(2021A0505110001)

With the vigorous development and large-scale applications of the global new energy vehicles, lithium ion battery (LIB) as the key components of electric vehicles has attracted extensive attention and research. While many urgent problems such as increasing energy density of LIB to alleviate range anxiety, developing fast charging strategy to shorten the driver's waiting time and prolonging LIB cycle life are to be solved. Especially the frequent thermal runaway incidents of LIB electric vehicles seriously affect the safety of passengers and the promotion of new energy vehicles. In order to understand the complex thermal reactions during thermal runaway occurrence, scanning calorimeter (C80 microcalorimeter) has been proposed to analyze the thermal behavior of different full cell systems, including positive electrodes, negative electrodes, separator and electrolyte of LiFePO4 (LFP), Li[NiCoMn]O2 (NCM) and LFP/NCM hybrid LIB. A deconvolution method is used to calculate heat generation based on specific electrode according to the deconvoluted data. Anode-electrolyte biphasic system at different state of charge (SOC), anode single-phase system, cathode-electrolyte biphasic system and LFP/NCM hybrid full cells without electrolyte are also studied to reveal detailed steps and specific heat generation during thermal runaway mechanism. According to the analysis, thermal runaway reactions of LIB full cells are comprised by the anode-electrolyte (130~200 ℃), anode-NCM (200~240 ℃) and anode-LFP (240~300 ℃). Additionally, in the case of injection co-efficient of commercial LIB, electrolyte will be used up during anode-electrolyte reaction. Then the leftover Li in anode subsequently react with cathode and the remaining decomposition of cathode will stop producing heat. Although the residual positive electrode material may still release oxygen due to structural collapse, the heat will not increase significantly due to the lack of negative electrodes or electrolytes that react with it. These results are crucial to reveal the internal mechanism of thermal reactions in LIB, providing the foundation of different battery systems applying to electric car.

Key words: lithium-ion battery, microcalorimeter, heat production, Li[NiCoMn]O2, LiFePO4