化学学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (4): 316-325.DOI: 10.6023/A14110787 上一篇    下一篇

综述

金属空气电池阴极氧还原催化剂研究进展

王瀛, 张丽敏, 胡天军   

  1. 山西师范大学化学与材料科学学院 临汾 041004
  • 收稿日期:2014-11-16 出版日期:2015-04-14 发布日期:2015-01-23
  • 通讯作者: 王瀛, 张丽敏 E-mail:wangyme@163.com;zhanglm@sxnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    项目受山西师范大学自然科学基金(No. ZR1402)资助.

Progress in Oxygen Reduction Reaction Electrocatalysts for Metal-Air Batteries

Wang Ying, Zhang Limin, Hu Tianjun   

  1. School of Chemistry and Material Science, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004
  • Received:2014-11-16 Online:2015-04-14 Published:2015-01-23
  • Supported by:

    Project supported by Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Normal University (No. ZR1402).

随着能源危机加剧和生态环境恶化, 可持续发展能源受到更大的重视. 金属空气电池作为一种绿色能源是具有很大发展潜力的新一代电池. 与传统电池相比, 此类电池有着更高的理论能量密度, 尤其是锂空电池, 能量密度可达3505 Wh/kg, 然而阴极缓慢的氧还原反应成为制约其发展的关键因素之一. 在简要介绍氧还原反应机理基础上, 着重介绍了近年来氧还原催化剂如贵金属及其合金、过渡金属氧化物/硫化物、功能化碳材料和金属氮化物的研究进展, 并根据目前所存在问题指出未来研究方向, 包括深入研究氧还原反应机理, 明确催化剂活性位; 研究催化剂结构等对催化活性的影响, 优化制备条件, 以提高催化活性和稳定性; 根据氧还原机理设计开发新型氧还原催化剂.

关键词: 金属空气电池, 氧还原反应, 催化剂, 电解液, 反应机理

With the intensification of the global energy crisis and the deterioration of ecological environment, the exploitation and utilization of sustainable energy have gained more attention. Metal-air battery as a kind of high-performance green energy may become one of the most promising next-generation battery technologies. Compared to conventional storage batteries such as Zn-Mn and lead-acid batteries, metal-air battery has higher theoretical energy density, especially Li-air battery with an extremely high theoretical density 3505 Wh/kg. Such high energy density is due to the fact that oxygen is not stored in the cell. Other advantages include stable potential, low cost and environmental friendship. However, there are many important factors that limit its commercial application. Among them, a critical issue is the sluggish kinetics of cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), so it is necessary to develop ORR catalytic materials for enhancing the kinetics. Recently, there are many researches about ORR catalysts. In addition to a brief introduction of the reaction mechanism of ORR, the paper introduced the current research progress of four groups of cathodic catalysts including noble metal and its alloys, transition-metal oxides/sulfides, functional carbon materials and metal nitrides. However, there are still many problems, such as the lack of fundamental mechanistic study, high cost of Pt-based catalyst, uncertain active site of functional carbon materials and low activity for non-noble metal catalysts. In summary, great efforts should be needed. Based on this, the authors pointed out the development direction for ORR catalysts. The future research direction of cathodic catalysts would include: (1) researching the elusive oxygen reaction mechanism and defining the active sites, (2) studying the effect of physical structure parameters (e.g., structure, morphology, size) on the activity and optimizing synthesis conditions of catalysts to obtain better activity and stability, (3) developing novel efficient and inexpensive catalysts in according to the oxygen reaction mechanism.

Key words: metal-air batteries, oxygen reduction reaction, catalyst, electrolyte, reaction mechanism