化学学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (10): 943-966.DOI: 10.6023/A17040183 上一篇    下一篇

综述

氧还原碳基非贵金属电催化剂研究进展

钟国玉a,b, 王红娟a, 余皓a, 彭峰a   

  1. a 华南理工大学 化学与化工学院 广州 510640;
    b 东莞理工学院 化学工程与能源技术学院 东莞 523808
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-24 出版日期:2017-10-15 发布日期:2017-09-06
  • 通讯作者: 彭峰,E-mail:cefpeng@scut.edu.cn;Tel.:020-87114916;Fax:020-874916 E-mail:cefpeng@scut.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:钟国玉,1989年生,东莞理工学院讲师,2016年07月毕业于华南理工大学化学与化工学院,获得工业催化专业博士学位,导师:彭峰教授.研究方向:碳基材料制备与氧还原电催化;王红娟,女,1975年生.2000年毕业于青岛科技大学化学工程系,获硕士学位;2003年毕业于华南理工大学化学工程专业,获博士学位;同年留校从事教学科研工作,2010年晋升化学与化工学院副教授,硕士生导师.研究方向:纳米材料及其在能源催化领域的应用.发表SCI论文50多篇,授权发明专利10多件;余皓,男,1977年生.2005年毕业于清华大学化学工程系,获博士、硕士学位;同年到华南理工大学化学与化工学院从事教学科研工作,2013年晋升化学与化工学院教授,博士生导师.研究方向:多相催化反应工程,纳米催化,能源催化等.发表SCI论文100多篇,授权发明专利10多件;彭峰,男,1968年生.1993年毕业于湖南大学化学工程系,获硕士学位,1996年毕业于华南理工大学工业催化专业,获博士学位,留校从事教学科研工作,2005年晋升化学与化工学院教授,博士生导师.研究方向:纳米材料与纳米催化,包括纳米碳材料制备与碳催化、电催化.发表SCI论文180多篇,授权发明专利25件.
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(Nos.21373091,21476089)资助.

A Review of Carbon-based Non-noble Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

Zhong Guoyua,b, Wang Hongjuana, Yu Haoa, Peng Fenga   

  1. a School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640;
    b School of Chemical Engineering and Energy Technology, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan 523808
  • Received:2017-04-24 Online:2017-10-15 Published:2017-09-06
  • Supported by:

    Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21373091, 21476089).

质子交换膜燃料电池是一种直接将化学能转化为电能的能量转换装置,具有环境友好、能量密度高、转化效率高等优点,能够应用于便携能源及燃料电池电动车领域.但燃料电池阴极氧还原需要大量的铂基催化剂,铂价格昂贵、储量有限、易中毒的缺点限制了它的实际应用.因此,开发低成本、高活性、高稳定性的阴极非贵金属催化剂将能够显著推动质子交换膜燃料电池的大规模商业化应用.其中碳基非贵金属催化剂作为最有可能替代铂的氧还原催化剂,引起了广泛的研究.基于此,本文首先简单介绍了氧还原的机理;其次将碳基非贵金属催化剂分为过渡金属氮碳催化剂和非金属掺杂碳催化剂,对它们在材料制备和活性中心的研究进行了总结和讨论;最后,报道了碳基非贵金属催化剂在质子交换膜燃料电池单电池中的应用进展.

关键词: 燃料电池, 氧还原, 非贵金属催化剂, 碳材料, 电催化, 过渡金属氮碳, 掺杂, 单电池

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) that directly convert chemical energy into electrical energy can be applied to portable power and fuel cell electric vehicles, due to their advantages such as environment-friendliness, high power density and high convert efficiency. However, the high loading of Pt-based catalysts on the cathode oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) hinder the commercial application of PEMFCs for the high price, resource shortage and easy poisoning of Pt. Thus, developing inexpensive, high performance and durability non-noble metal cathode catalysts will promote the large-scale commercialization of PEMFCs. As the most likely alternative to Pt, carbon-based non-noble ORR catalysts have been widely studied. In this review, firstly, the electrocatalytic mechanism for ORR is simply introduced. Secondly, the carbon-based non-noble ORR catalysts are divided into transition metal-nitrogen-carbon compounds (M-N-C) and non-metal heteroatom-doped carbon catalysts; the researches of material preparations and active sites are summarized and discussed. Thirdly, the applications of carbon-based non-noble ORR catalysts in PEMFC are reviewed. Although great progress has been achieved in this area of research and development, there are still some challenges for carbon-based non-noble ORR catalysts. Firstly, the ORR electrocatalytic mechanism isn't clear, especially carbon-based non-noble catalysts. Secondly, the ORR active sites of carbon-based non-noble catalysts remain controversial, which can be mainly divided into the transition metal coordination compounds, the doped heteroatom, the filled metal and the defect sites. Thirdly, the actual activity and stability of carbon-based non-noble catalysts are still below the PEMFC target. In summary, the future research directions on carbon-based non-noble catalysts for PEMFC applications would be proposed as follows:(1) fundamentally understanding the ORR mechanisms and their relationship with catalyst active site structures and composition using both theoretical calculations and experimental approaches; (2) improving catalyst activity and stability to satisfy the practical application of PEMFC.

Key words: fuel cells, oxygen reduction reaction, non-noble metal catalyst, carbon material, transition metal nitrogen carbon, doped, single cell