Chinese Journal of Organic Chemistry ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (2): 521-528.DOI: 10.6023/cjoc202007014 Previous Articles     Next Articles



杜玉英a, 肖业元b, 田福利c, 韩利民a,*(), 顾彦龙b,*(), 竺宁a   

  1. a 内蒙古工业大学化工学院 呼和浩特 010051
    b 华中科技大学化学与化工学院 武汉 430074
    c 海南科技职业大学 海口 571126
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-05 修回日期:2020-08-13 发布日期:2020-09-30
  • 通讯作者: 韩利民, 顾彦龙
  • 作者简介:
    * Corresponding authors. E-mail: ;
  • 基金资助:
    内蒙古草原英才基金(841060); 国家自然科学基金(2171101076); 国家自然科学基金(21872060)

Progress in Annulative Transformations from Indoles to Carbazoles: State of the Art

Yuying Dua, Yeyuan Xiaob, Fuli Tianc, Limin Hana,*(), Yanlong Gub,*(), Ning Zhua   

  1. a Chemical Engineering College, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051
    b School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074
    c Hainan Vocational University of Science and Technology, Haikou 571126
  • Received:2020-07-05 Revised:2020-08-13 Published:2020-09-30
  • Contact: Limin Han, Yanlong Gu
  • Supported by:
    the Research Funds of Caoyuanyingcai Program of Inner Mongolia(841060); the National Natural Science Foundation of China(2171101076); the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21872060)

Carbazole is an important type of nitrogen organic compound containing aromatic heterocyclic ring. Carbazole derivatives are endowed with unique physical and chemical properties, and applied to natural products, various pharmacological activities, many drugs and photophysical materials. The concise and versatile synthetic strategies of ubiquity of carbazole analogues have attracted significant attention from the synthetic chemists. Herein, the current progress of annulation transformations from indoles to carbazole derivatives is summarized in recent 5 years. The representative samples of the cyclization strategies have been selected and divided into three types, respectively: [2+2'+2'] cyclization reaction, [2+2'+2"] cyclization reaction and [4+2] cycloaddition. The basic properties, advantages and limitations of each reaction are discussed in detail. A perspective is also given in this review.

Key words: carbazole derivatives, indoles, cyclization reaction, synthesis